Exposição do Mundo Português, 1940


Information and media about 1940 "Exposição do Mundo Português", part of the "Comemoração dos Cenetenários", is published here in my blog abou secret war written in Portugueses. A film documentary, directed by António Lopes Ribeiro, is part of the material I compiled. Great Britain was represented by HRH The Duke of Kent.

German agenda, propaganda in Lisboa

German propaganda trough a pocket agenda, a gift from the German Information Service in Lisbon. 

I found it in my archives. 

Quotations from the Führer show him as the hope for a Christian, free, egalitarian society.

URSS was the only enemy, the Brits because they supported them

[read more, here, in Portuguese]

1939: Legionnaires parade

1939: Portuguese legionnaires parade, celebrating the anniversary of the National Revolution. Salazar states that «Portugal is proud to be Britain's old ally» [Source: British Pathé]. Click in the image to watch the trailer.

The Historical Society: War-time


«The stress of War conditions has naturally afected our activities even at this distance, some of our members finding they could render useful clerical assistance to various War-time services needing their collaboration». It can be read in the 4th annual report of The Historical Association (Lisbon Branch), dated 1940.
One of the members was Rev. Father Crowley that I mentioned in my book about SOE in Portugal concerning John Beevor local contacts.

Anthony Haigh at the APN

In my blog O Mundo das Sombras [see full text here]I recall a bulletin, published at 30.12.1943, by the anglo-portuguese newspaper APN, directed by Luiz Marques

about the leave of Anthony Haigh, 1st Secretary at the Lisbon Embassy since 1940, to the Foreign Ofice in London.


In Dulci Jubilo


If I am allowed to dedicate this to someone it will Professor Douglas Wheeler, because he is a good friend and has always a gesture of kindness even after my silent months.
Time elapses but the feelings remain. Merry Christmas Professor!



Juan Pujol Garcia at "O Século" newsroom...



I found it, my old notebook. I worked then in the "Palácio Foz" photographic archive. Here are some of the pictures I found there: Ambassador Sir Walford Selby, Ambassador Baron Oswald von Hoyningen-Huene, Joseph Kennedy, Ambassador Sir Samuel Hoare, Ambassador Sir Ronald Campbell,Colonel Donovan, Capt. Agostinho Lourenço, and... I believe Juan Pujol Garcia: his picture, if I may assume it was him, was taken in 1940, during a visit of some "journalists" to "O Século" newspaper.

Kenneth Benton

He signed for me his memoirs when I visited him years ago. He was MI6 man in Madrid when Miss Sergueiew applied for a visa. During a long afternoon we talked about Garbo, Graham Greene and many others.

Otto Strasser in Singeverga...



Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser [1897-1974], joined of the German Nazi Party [NSDAP], from whom he was expelled after dispute with Adolph Hitler. He wrote a book about his relationship with Hitler [see here]. See more about him, here
Rumours were disseminated about the fact that in 1940 on his escape to Bermuda he was hidden in a Beneditin monastery of Singeverga, while looking for his brother Paul, a monk.

Recently more information arrived about Strasser's route via Portugal: 

«[...] on 2nd October, 1940, the British Embassy in Lisbon smuggled Dr. Otto Strasser out of Portugal, paying his passage to Bermuda, and then on to Canada; and that, during the greater part of this escape from the Gestapo, Dr. Strasser travelled on a British passport under the name of Mr. Oswald Bostock, provided by Her Majesty's authorities [...]» [source here]

«[...] Otto Strasser was warned by friends not to use the Madrid-Lisbon train and sought to make his way to Portugal by detours. He took a bus from Madrid to Salamanca, a local train from there on, got out a few miles beyond the Portuguese frontier and took another bus to Villa Real on the coast, only to learn from the porter at the seminary that his brother had removed to a monastery in the interior. He was lucky to meet an old man, a prisoner of war in Germany in the First War, who was proud of his German, and who helped him with the inevitable paper-formalities at police headquarters and put him on another bus which brought him to his brother's monastery. He was greeted as one, risen from the dead, the radio having recently announced that he had been captured and killed by the Gestapo. The brothers drank a glass of port in honour of the German adage, Dass die Totgesagten am laengsten leben, and exchanged narratives. This was another idyllic respite on the hard path; outside Strasser's cell was an orange tree that bore both blossom and fruit, and the monastery garden, in its perfumed quiet, was like paradise. For Otto Strasser no respite endures long. He reached the monastery in the second week of August 1940 and one day in September, as the abbot and his monks were crossing the garden, a motor car drove into the courtyard. Two well-dressed men got out and asked to see the abbot, who gently praised the elegance of their vehicle. Without any embarrassment one of them answered, 'We should be most happy to make you a gift of one exactly like it if you will do something for us.' The abbot, somewhat taken aback, invited them into his study and afterwards informed Strasser of what transpired. His visitors informed him that they knew one Dr. Otto Strasser to be residing in his monastery under an assumed name. Dr. Strasser was a notorious traitor, whose extradition had already been applied for by the German Government. If the abbot would 'co-operate' and hand over the traitor to them, they would make a donation of a hundred thousand escudos to his monastery, in addition to the motor car already offered. The abbot reached for the telephone and called the police. 'By all means inform the police,' said one of his visitors, 'we have no objection', and he displayed a diplomatic passport. The two strangers were the Military Attache and the Press Attache of the German Legation in Lisbon. The police arrived, but could do nothing in view of the diplomatic passports; the two gentlemen politely but coldly withdrew and drove away [...]» [source here]

Ilse Losa

Ilse, born Liblich, Losa (1913-1996). Arrived in 1934, after an escape to England family anted by Gestapo.. Wrote several books [first in 1943] concerning his personal experience about the world she lived, ficition and children stories. 



Hotel Vitória


Now it belongs to the Portuguese Communist Party. During WW2 it was Hotel Vitoria.
Paradoxically Axis people used to stay here.It was built during 1934/1936, after a design of Cassiano Branco.

BBC, the voice of London


It was a major tool for our nationals to be informed during WW2. People used to listen it carefully, not to be detected by police informants. 
The photo shows the Portuguese section of the BBC, broadcasting from London.
Cortesão case is quoted as an evidence of Salazar attempt to intervene in the editorial line through the way the personnel was hired. From the abstract of Nelson Costa Ribeiro paper [read full text here]: «This article presents a case study on the limits of the BBC Overseas Service’s journalistic independence during World War II. Not only editorial policy but also the personnel hired by the BBC Portuguese Service were subject to pressure from Salazar through the Foreign Office. How the Lisbon government was made aware of the events taking place inside the Portuguese Service and which strategies were used to interfere in its editorial line are discussed. This history presents clear evidence of how the BBC was required to trim its output in order to avoid diplomatic problems arising between the British and the Portuguese governments.»
The book I wrote about Operation Longshanks in Marmagoa harbour shows how the station acted in that case as a tool of HM Government propaganda, not in order to inform about the true of the events but what could be useful in order to hide the act of piracy of the SOE station in Calcutta.
No one is innocent in the airwaves war.

Cerva: wolfram mine



Wolfram a vital mineral during WW2 and a tool for Portuguese neutrality through commerce with both parties.
The mine of Cerva at the North of Portugal {Vila Real] is now abandoned. But it was [see here, here and here for more] the source for tungsten and quartz. 
The mine was explored by Sociéte Civile d'Études de Tous Gisemants Miniers (Paris), after 1945 Companhia Portuguesa de Minas - Concessão de S. João de Escourêda; and after 1956 Minas de Cerva SARL.


Photo source: jab

007's soul and influence


I wrote about Ian Fleming 1941 travel to Lisbon in order to fly with Admiral Henry Godfrey [see here for his life] to America in my book "Ensaio sobre a Imortalidade", a comparison between his personality and biography and 007's character. 
A naval officer, he was working then on the anglo-american cooperation in the field of intelligence.
Vient de paraître an essay about the novelist books influence in CIA's public profile [see here and here].
When one speaks about James Bond it's necessary to distinguish between what is on the books and what Hollywood made of him. He is much more than the covert operations agent. Casino Royale, Fleming's first book was about his human soul. The soul of both of them. Now it can be said this is the case of the hot bed and the cold war.

A book about SOE agent Manderstam


I am working on a book about the life of Leopold (Lev) Manderstam, an engineer who work in Angola and Mozambique on the textile and oil business. In matter of fact he was a SOE agent. If anyone would convey some information about him, I would be much obliged. See the email adress on this blog page.

Dino Grandi escape to Portugal


«Grandi, Dino Conte di Mordano (1895-1988) – WWI service as mountain troops officer; member of Italian Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista - PNF) Oct 1920; appointed Regional Secretary of Fascists in Emilia Romagna (Fasci dell' Emilia Romagna), Apr 1921; PNF Deputy May 1924; Interior Ministry Undersecretary Jul 1924; Foreign Ministry Undersecretary May 1925; Italian Foreign Minister Sept 1929-1932; Italian Ambassador to London Jul 1932-Jul 1939; Justice Minister (Ministro Guardasigilli) Jul 1939; appointed President of the Chamber of Fascists and Corporations (Camera dei Fasci e delle Corporazioni), Nov 1939-Feb 1943; service, Greek campaign Nov 1940; member, Italian Fascist Grand Council {fled to Portugal; charged with treason for supporting the ouster of Benito Mussolini in Sept 1943; convicted by a special Italian Social Republic (Repubblica Sociale Italiano - RSI) tribunal for the defense of the State at Verona and sentenced to death in absentia (NYT 8 Jan 1944:4:5; 10 Jan 1944:5:2; 11 Jan 1:7 & 5:4; NYT 12 Jan 1944:5:5); put on trial in absentia before an Italian court at Rome 25 Nov 1947 (LT 26 Nov 1947:3d); acquitted at trial in absentia by High Commission for the Expurgation of Fascism court 1 Dec 1947 (LT 2 Dec 1947:3f; Fascist Italy pps. 254-60); arrived at Buenos Aires, Argentina c. 1949 under the name "Domenico Galli" and claiming to be a Portugese attorney (NYT 27 Mar 1949:21:1); died 21 May 1988 at Bologna (ABR-Italy; Fascist Italy pps. 254-260).}» [source here]

While in Portugal, firts in Viana do Castelo [Hotel Santa Luzia] then in Monte do Estoril, till 1948, he assumed to be "Dr. Domenico Galli". A mensual subvention was granted through the Portuguese Government [see here]. For more see here  [in Italian].

José Cabral, his role during Operation Longshanks


Here he is. José Cabral The Governor General of Mozambique [1926-1938] and India [1938-1945] who had a relevant role on behalf of the British during SOE Operation Longshanks in Marmagoa in 1943. ANglophile, decorated by HM the King, entitled to use the Sir. [source here]. Now the full story can be understood.

Shinjuwan, Risubon, Tōkyō


It's the book of the memoirs written in 1950 by the Japanese Ambassador in Lisbon, Morito Morishima. You may find it here. Written in Japanese. Good luck!

Crowd reading latest dispatches about African occupation


«Crowd read news about African occupation in Lisbon, Portugal during World War II. Exterior of office of newspaper 'Seculo' shows crowd reading latest dispatches about African occupation. Exterior of office of newspaper 'Diario de Lisboa'. Newsboys around a door. News vendors rush down stairs with bundles of papers. News vendor's kiosk where papers of all countries are sold. Newsstand with foreign papers. First edition of Diario de Lisboa is sold at barber shop on the day of occupation of North Africa.»

Stock Footage - Crowd reading latest dispatches about African occupation outside newspaper offices in Lisbon, Portugal during World War II.

Charles de Salis, Mi6 in Portugal


I met him some years ago in his house in the South of England. A kind man he gave all the instructions I need to arrive there from Victoria Station, London. After a lunch at his house when expectating for the train we were talking about Graham Greene his colleague at Section V of Mi6. He died on Feb, 27, 2007, aged 96. He worked under "Kim" Philby supervision.